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TREASURY REGULATIONS


Index  » Subchapter F  » Reg. 301.6323(c)-3

Reg. 301.6323(c)-3
Protection for obligatory disbursement agreements

January 15, 2021


§ 301.6323(c)-2 « Browse » § 301.6323(d)-1

See related I.R.C. 6323

Treas. Reg. § 301.6323(c)-3.  Protection for obligatory disbursement agreements

(a) In general. Even though a notice of a lien imposed by section 6321 is filed in accordance with § 301.6323(f)-1, the lien is not valid with respect to a security interest which:

(1) Comes into existence after the tax lien filing,

(2) Is in qualified property covered by the terms of an obligatory disbursement agreement entered into before the tax lien filing, and

(3) Is protected under local law against a judgment lien arising, as of the time of tax lien filing, out of an unsecured obligation.

See paragraphs (a) and (e) of § 301.6323(h)-1 for definitions of the terms “security interest” and “tax lien filing.” For purposes of this section, a judgment lien is a lien held by a judgment lien creditor as defined in paragraph (g) of § 301.6323(h)-1.

(b) Obligatory disbursement agreement. For purposes of this section the term “obligatory disbursement agreement” means a written agreement, entered into by a person in the course of his trade or business, to make disbursements. An agreement is treated as an obligatory disbursement agreement only with respect to disbursements which are required to be made by reason of the intervention of the rights of a person other than the taxpayer. The obligation to pay must be conditioned upon an event beyond the control of the obligor. For example, the provisions of this section are applicable where an issuing bank obligates itself to honor drafts or other demands for payment on a letter of credit and a bank, in good faith, relies upon that letter of credit in making advances. The provisions of this section are also applicable, for example, where a bonding company obligates itself to make payments to indemnify against loss or liability and, under the terms of the bond, makes a payment with respect to a loss. The priority described in this section is not applicable, for example, in the case of an accommodation endorsement by an endorser who assumes his obligation other than in the course of his trade or business.

(c) Qualified property. Except as provided under paragraph (d) of this section, the term “qualified property,” for purposes of this section, means property subject to the lien imposed by section 6321 at the time of tax lien filing and, to the extent that the acquisition is directly traceable to the obligatory disbursement, property acquired by the taxpayer after tax lien filing.

(d) Special rule for surety agreements. Where the obligatory disbursement agreement is an agreement insuring the performance of a contract of the taxpayer and another person, the term “qualified property” shall be treated as also including -

(1) The proceeds of the contract the performance of which was insured, and

(2) If the contract the performance of which was insured is a contract to construct or improve real property, to produce goods, or to furnish services, any tangible personal property used by the taxpayer in the performance of the insured contract.

For example, a surety company which holds a security interest, arising from cash disbursements made after tax lien filing under a payment or performance bond on a real estate construction project, has priority over the tax lien with respect to the proceeds of the construction contract and, in addition, with respect to any tangible personal property used by the taxpayer in the construction project if its security interest in the tangible personal property is protected under local law against a judgment lien arising, as of the time the tax lien was filed, out of an unsecured obligation.

(3) Examples. This section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1.

(i) On January 2, 1969, H, an appliance dealer, in order to finance the acquisition from O of a large inventory of appliances, enters into a written agreement with Z, a bank. Under the terms of the agreement, in return for a security interest in all of H's inventory, presently owned and subsequently acquired, Z issues an irrevocable letter of credit to allow H to make the purchase. On December 31, 1968 and January 10, 1969, in accordance with § 301.6323(f)-1, separate notices of lien are filed with respect to H's delinquent tax liabilities. On March 31, 1969, Z honors the letter of credit. Under local law, Z's security interest in both existing and after-acquired inventory is protected against a judgment lien arising on or after January 10, 1969, out of an unsecured obligation. Under local law, Z's security interest in the inventory purchased under the letter of credit qualifies as a purchase money security interest and is valid against persons acquiring security interests in or liens upon such inventory at any time.

(ii) Because Z's security interest in H's inventory did not arise under a written agreement entered into before the filing of notice of the first tax lien on December 31, 1968, that lien is superior to Z's security interest except to the extent of Z's purchase money security interest. Because Z's interest qualifies as a purchase money security interest with respect to the inventory purchased under the letter of credit, the tax liens attach under section 6321 only to the equity acquired by H, and the rights of Z in the inventory so purchased as superior even to the lien filed on December 31, 1968, without regard to this section.

(iii) Because Z's security interest arose by reason of disbursements made under a written agreement which was entered into before the filing of notice of the second tax lien on January 10, 1969, and which constitutes an agreement to make disbursements required to be made by reason of the intervention of the rights of O, a person other than the taxpayer, and because Z's security interest is valid under local law against a judgment lien arising as of the time of such tax lien filing on January 10, 1969, out of an unsecured obligation, the second tax lien is, under this section, not valid with respect to Z's security interest in inventory owned by H on January 10, 1969, as well as any after-acquired inventory directly traceable to Z's disbursements (apart from such greater protection as Z enjoys, with respect to the latter, under its purchase money security interest). No protection against the second tax lien is provided under this section with respect to a security interest in any other inventory acquired by H after January 10, 1969, because such other inventory is neither subject to the tax lien at the time of tax lien filing nor directly traceable to Z's disbursements.

Example 2.

On June 1, 1971, K is awarded a contract to construct an office building. At the same time, S, a surety company, agrees in writing to insure the performance of the contract. The agreement provides that in the event S must complete the job as the result of a default by K, S will be entitled to the proceeds of the contract. In addition, the agreement provides that S is to have a security interest in all property belonging to K. On December 1, 1971, prior to the completion of the building, K defaults. On the same date, under § 301.6323(f)-1, a notice of lien is filed with respect to K's delinquent tax liability. S completes the building on June 1, 1972. Under local law S's security interest in the proceeds of the contract and S's security interest in the property of K are entitled to priority over a judgment lien arising December 1, 1971 (the date of tax lien filing) out of an unsecured obligation. Because, for purposes of an obligatory disbursement agreement which is a surety agreement, the security interest may be in the proceeds of the insured contract, S's security interest in the proceeds of the contract has priority over the tax lien even though a notice of lien was filed before S's security interest arose. Furthermore, because the insured contract was a contract to construct real property, S's security interest in any of K's tangible personal property used in the performance of the contract also has priority over the tax lien.

Example 3.

(i) On February 2, 1970, L enters into an agreement with M, a contractor, to construct an apartment building on land owned by L. Under a separate agreement, N bank agrees to furnish funds on a short-term basis to L for the payment of amounts due to M during the course of construction. Simultaneously, X, a financial institution, makes a binding commitment to N bank and L to provide long-term financing for the project after its completion. Under its commitment, X is obligated to pay off the balance of the construction loan held by N bank upon the execution by L of a new promissory note secured by a mortgage deed of trust upon the improved property. On September 4, 1970, in accordance with § 301.6323(f)-1, notice of lien is properly filed with respect to L's delinquent tax liability. On September 8, 1970. X obtains actual notice of the tax lien filing. On September 14, 1970, the documents creating X's security interest are executed and recorded, N bank's lien for its construction loan is released, and X makes the required disbursements to N bank. Under local law, X's security interest is protected against a judgment lien arising on September 4, 1970 (the time of tax lien filing) out of an unsecured obligation.

(ii) Because X's security interest arose by reason of a disbursement made under a written agreement entered into before tax lien filing, which constitutes an agreement to make disbursements required to be made by reason of the intervention of the rights of N bank, a person other than the taxpayer, and because X's security interest is valid under local law against a judgment lien arising as of the time of the tax lien filing out of an unsecured obligation, the tax lien is not valid with respect to X's security interest to the extent of the disbursement to N bank. The obligatory disbursement is protected under section 6323(c)(4) even if X is not subrogated to N bank's rights or X's agreement is not itself a real property construction financing agreement.


[T.D. 7429, 41 FR 35504, Aug. 23, 1976]
 

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