(a) The following rules apply to a claim for credit or refund of income tax: -
(1) In general, in the case of an overpayment of income taxes, a claim for credit or refund of such overpayment shall be made on the appropriate income tax return.
(2) In the case of an overpayment of income taxes for a taxable year of an individual for which a Form 1040 or 1040A has been filed, a claim for refund shall be made on Form 1040X (“Amended U.S. Individual Income Tax Return”).
(3) In the case of an overpayment of income taxes for a taxable year of a corporation for which a Form 1120 has been filed, a claim for refund shall be made on Form 1120X (“Amended U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return”).
(4) In the case of an overpayment of income taxes for a taxable year for which a form other than Form 1040, 1040A, or 1120 was filed (such as Form 1041 (U.S. Fiduciary Income Tax Return) or Form 990T (Exempt Organization Business Income Tax Return)), a claim for credit or refund shall be made on the appropriate amended income tax return.
(5) A properly executed individual, fiduciary, or corporation original income tax return or an amended return (on 1040X or 1120X if applicable) shall constitute a claim for refund or credit within the meaning of section 6402 and section 6511 for the amount of the overpayment disclosed by such return (or amended return). For purposes of section 6511, such claim shall be considered as filed on the date on which such return (or amended return) is considered as filed, except that if the requirements of § 301.7502-1, relating to timely mailing treated as timely filing are met, the claim shall be considered to be filed on the date of the postmark stamped on the cover in which the return (or amended return) was mailed. A return or amended return shall constitute a claim for refund or credit if it contains a statement setting forth the amount determined as an overpayment and advising whether such amount shall be refunded to the taxpayer or shall be applied as a credit against the taxpayer's estimated income tax for the taxable year immediately succeeding the taxable year for which such return (or amended return) is filed. If the taxpayer indicates on its return (or amended return) that all or part of the overpayment shown by its return (or amended return) is to be applied to its estimated income tax for its succeeding taxable year, such indication shall constitute an election to so apply such overpayment, and no interest shall be allowed on such portion of the overpayment credited and such amount shall be applied as a payment on account of the estimated income tax for such year or the installments thereof.
(6) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(5) of this section, the Internal Revenue Service, within the applicable period of limitations, may credit any overpayment of individual, fiduciary, or corporation income tax, including interest thereon, against -
(i) First, any outstanding liability for any tax (or for any interest, additional amount, additions to the tax, or assessable penalty) owed by the taxpayer making the overpayment;
(ii) Second, in the case of an individual taxpayer, amounts of past-due support assigned to a State under section 402(a)(26) or 471(a)(17) of the Social Security Act under procedures set forth in the regulations under section 6402(c);
(iii) Third, past-due and legally enforceable debt under procedures set forth in the regulations under section 6402(d); and
(iv) Fourth, qualifying amounts of past-due support not assigned to a State under procedures set forth in the regulations under section 6402 (c).
(c) If the taxpayer is not required to show the tax on the form (see section 6014 and the accompanying regulations), the IRS will treat a properly filed income tax return as a claim for refund and such return will constitute a claim for refund within the meaning of section 6402 and section 6511 for the amount of the overpayment shown by the computation of the tax made by the IRS on the basis of the return. For purposes of the limitations period of section 6511, such claim will be treated as filed on the date the return is treated as filed.
(d) In any case in which a taxpayer elects to have an overpayment refunded to him he may not thereafter change his election to have the overpayment applied as a payment on account of his estimated income tax.
(e) In the case of a nonresident alien individual or foreign corporation, the appropriate income tax return on which the claim for refund or credit is made must contain the tax identification number of the taxpayer required pursuant to section 6109 and the entire amount of income of the taxpayer subject to tax, even if the tax liability for that income was fully satisfied at source through withholding under chapters 3 or 4 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code). Also, if the overpayment of tax resulted from the withholding of tax at source under chapter 3 or 4 of the Code, a copy of the Form 1042-S, “Foreign Person's U.S. Source Income subject to Withholding,” Form 8805, “Foreign Partner's Information Statement of Section 1446 Withholding Tax,” or other statement (required under § 1.1446-3(d)(2) of this chapter) required to be provided to the beneficial owner or partner pursuant to § 1.1461-1(c)(1)(i), § 1.1474-1(d)(1)(i), or § 1.1446-3(d) of this chapter must be attached to the return. For purposes of claiming a refund, the Form 8805 or other statement must include the taxpayer identification number of the beneficial owner or partner even if not otherwise required. No claim for refund or credit under chapter 65 of the Code may be made by the taxpayer for any amount that the payor has repaid to the taxpayer pursuant to reimbursement or set-off procedures (described in § 1.1461-2(a)(2),(3) or § 1.1474-2(a)(3), (4) of this chapter). In addition, no claim for refund or credit may be made by a taxpayer for any amount that has been repaid to a qualified intermediary (as described in § 1.1441-1(e)(5)(ii)) or a participating FFI (as described in § 1.1471-1(b)(91)) pursuant to a collective refund filed by such entity on behalf of the taxpayer. See § 1.1441-1(e)(5)(iii) (describing a qualified intermediary agreement) and § 1.1471-4(h) (describing a collective refund). Upon request, a taxpayer must also submit such documentation as the IRS, may require establishing that the taxpayer is the beneficial owner of the income for which a claim for refund or credit is being made and verifying the grounds and facts set forth in taxpayer's claim as required by § 301.6402-2(b)(1). See § 1.1474-5 for additional requirements that may apply in the case of a refund of tax withheld under chapter 4.
(f) Effective/applicability date - (1) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section, this section applies on or after January 6, 2017. (For payments made after June 30, 2014, and before January 6, 2017, see this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2016.)
(2) References in paragraph (e) of this section to Form 8805 or other statements required under § 1.1446-3(d)(2) shall apply to partnership taxable years beginning after April 29, 2008. References in paragraph (e) of this section to amounts withheld under chapter 4 of the Code and claims made with respect to amounts withheld under chapter 4 of the Code shall apply to withholdable payments made after June 30, 2014.
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